Today in 1964 — The bodies of three missing civil rights workers in Mississippi are found.
In the summer of 1964, James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner set out for the Mississippi Freedom Summer. They were among almost 1000 students who had signed up to further civil rights in Mississippi through community programs and voter registration.
In anticipation of hostile working conditions, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee for the Freedom Summer project had requested federal assistance in early June to protect the civil rights workers and enforce their rights. A June 10 letter to LBJ stated:
"The record is full of intimidations, arrests, beatings, shootings, and even murder, inflicted upon Negro and white citizens. It is clear beyond doubt that they cannot depend upon the State of Mississippi for protection."
Less than two weeks later, Lee White, LBJ’s aide, received a phone call informing him of the disappearance of three civil rights workers in Mississippi. The next day he wrote the memo shown above.
The remains of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner were found on August 4, 1964. LBJ was at the White House, working on the passage of the poverty bill. His day was first interrupted by reports of a new attack in the Gulf of Tonkin.
During a Security Council meeting, the President received a call from Assistant FBI Director, Cartha “Deke” Deloach, informing him that the bodies, missing since June, had been found.
-from the LBJ Library
Memo to the Record, Lee White, 6/23/64, “Mississippi Summer Project Voter Registration,” Office Files of Lee White, Box 6, LBJ Library.
Memo, Alexander to White, 6/10/64, “Mississippi Summer Project Voter Registration,” Office Files of Lee White, Box 6, LBJ Library.
Forty-two years ago, President Richard Nixon signed the Education Amendments of 1972, which has come to be known as Title IX. The amendment did not specifically mention sports, but it’s far-reaching impact is widely credited for opening up opportunities for women in athletics.
Images from: An Act of June 23, 1972, Public Law 92-318, 86 STAT 235, to Amend the Higher Education Act of 1965, the Vocational Educational Act of 1963, the General Education Provisions Act (Creating a National Foundation for Postsecondary Education and a National Institute of Education), the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Public Law 874, Eighty-First Congress, and Related Acts, and for Other Purposes, 6/23/1972.
June 23, 1972: Title IX is Signed into Law
On this day in 1972, President Richard Nixon signed Title IX of the Education Amendments into law. Title IX protects people from discrimination based on sex in all education programs or activities which receive federal funding. One of the most notable impacts of Title IX is the implementation of women sports in schools. As a result, there are more women participating in sports than ever before.
In 2002, Title IX was renamed the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, after its co-author, Representative Patsy Mink of Hawaii.
Learn more about the impact of Title IX with MAKERS: Women Who Make America.
Photos: Senator Birch Bayh exercises with Title IX athletes at Purdue University, ca. 1972, the late Representative Patsy Mink of Hawaii, Title IX co-author, for whom the law was renamed in 2002.
President Truman received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Princeton University on On June 17, 1947.
He also delivered the commencement address: “Free and inquiring minds, with unlimited access to the sources of knowledge, can be the architects of a peaceful and prosperous world.”
-from the Truman Library
The President is answering your questions tomorrow, and it will be awesome. Tune in Tuesday at 4 p.m. ET on whitehouse.tumblr.com.
You know, if you’re hip to all these things.
We’ll be there!
(As the Archives maybe we’re not too hip ourselves, but we can tell you what was hip.)
President George W. Bush and Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings join Mike Geisen, the 2008 National Teacher of the Year, and his family as they celebrate the 7th grade teacher’s honors in the Rose Garden of the White House.
Thank you to all of the teachers out there on Teacher Appreciation Day!
-from the George W. Bush Library
Eleanor Roosevelt and the Todhunter School
In 1927, Eleanor and her friends Marion Dickerman and Nancy Cook purchased a small, private school for girls in New York City called Todhunter School. The school provided primary and secondary education, and it emphasized art, music, and drama, as well as a college preparatory curriculum. Todhunter combined traditional testing and grading standards with progressive teaching methods.
Eleanor was Associate Principal of Todhunter School and taught courses in American history, literature, and current events. She patterned her teaching techniques on Marie Souvestre, the Allenswood headmistress who had been so influential in her own life. Eleanor greatly enjoyed her work at Todhunter, telling a reporter in 1932 that “I like it better than anything I do.”
Letter from Damon Cleveland to President Reagan Urging the Creation of a Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Holiday
Several students from the P.S. 241 school in Brooklyn, New York wrote letters to President Reagan shortly after his inauguration, urging him to make Dr. King’s birthday a national holiday.
On November 2, 1983, President Reagan signed the Act of Congress that created the Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Holiday to occur on the third Monday in January.
"Please put this at the top of your list of things to do."
from the Presidential Timeline
This week in 1963, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Higher Education Facilities Act
At the signing, LBJ said:
"A great former President of the Republic of my State said, ‘The educated mind is the guardian genius of democracy. It is the only dictator that free men recognize and the only ruler that free men desire.’ So this new law is the most significant education bill passed by the Congress in the history of the Republic."
Photo: President Johnson signing the Higher Education Facilities Act, 12/16/63.
-from the LBJ Library